AC Input Current
The ﬂow of electricity pulled under the highest DC load (value must be listed on product labels for compliance to safety agency standards).
AC Input Frequency
Most AC power is generated at either 50 or 60 Hz (cycles per second). Switching Power Supplies typically accept any frequency between 47-63Hz (nominal).
AC Input Voltage
The nominal AC Input Voltage that a power supply will accept during normal operation. Safety agencies require a power supply to operate an extended 10% of the stated input range on the product label. For example, a switching power supply labeled with a nominal 100 to 240VAC input range will actually operate over 90–264VAC input range.
AC Inrush Current
The instantaneous current drawn when the power supply is turned on. Larger power supplies generally incorporate a thermistor to limit this amount. It is most important in considering an AC switch rating.
Active Current Share
See Single Wire Parallel and sharing power.
Active Power Factor Correction
Traditional switched mode power supplies draw current from the AC line in short pulses, and as a result, the input current of such basic switched mode power supplies has high harmonic content. This creates extra load on utility lines and increased heat of utility transformers and may cause stability problems to the entire AC Line. Active Power Factor Correction controls the input current of a power supply so that the current wave form is proportional to the AC waveform (a sine wave).
The maximum altitude at which a power supply can be operated without derating. Supplies must often be de-rated due to the thinner air which is required to cool the power supply.
The temperature of still air surrounding a power supply.
(A) The base unit of current.
A metal surface to which circuit components are mounted in such a way as to draw heat away from components.
A single layer of required insulation to prevent electrical shock.
A multi cell device that produces DC electricity via an Electro chemical action. Battery cells are connected in parallel (to produce a required current) and/or series (to produce a required voltage).
An electronic equipment subsystem that provides temporary power in the event of input power loss. Battery backed systems range from short term options for AC/ DC power supplies to high Uninterruptible Power Systems. See Uninterruptible Power Supplies (DC-UPS).
A power supply or power supply output that is used to charge a storage battery or battery system.
A resistor that provides a path for current drain. Often used in filter circuits provide a discharge path for capacitors.
The mechanical design of a power supply to slide into position and make connection with it’s mating connector when properly seated. This is particularly common in Hot-Swap/Warm-Swap power supplies or modules in parallel/redundant applications. It is common with this type of connection for there to be a short pin called last-mate which enables the supply to be on, in order to prevent arcing or powering of the supply until it is ﬁrmly seated into its mating connector.
A boost converter (step-up converter) is a power converter with an output DC voltage greater than its input DC voltage.
The breakdown voltage of an insulator is the minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to fail and become conductive.
A switching supply topology that employs four switching elements (full bridge) or two switching elements (half bridge). Bridge a supply provide high output power and low ripple, but are signiﬁcantly more complex than other types of supply topologies.
When AC Line Voltage drops below nominal levels.
A basic switching converter topology that uses a series switch to chop the input voltage. The resulting pulses are applied to an averaging LC filter. Buck regulators will only produce an output voltage lower than the input voltage level.
Operating newly manufactured supplies under deﬁned load conditions for a speciﬁed period to eliminate faulty power supplies from shipping. Most power supplies will typically fail in the ﬁrst few hours of operation (referred to as infant mortality). The time period and conditions (input power cycling, load switch ing, temperature, etc.) will vary from product to product.
Range This is the temperature range at which a supply will meet its speciﬁcations as measured at the center of the top surface of the power supply.
Cubic Feet per Minute is a common measure of the volume of air flowing in a system. The conversion of cubic feet per minute to linear feet per minute is dependent upon the cross-sectional area through which the air flows.
A chassis ground is a connection to the main chassis of a piece of electronic or electrical equipment. It is sometimes called common ground. It provides a reference that can be considered to have zero voltage. All other circuit voltages (positive or negative) are measured or deﬁned with respect to it. Ideally, all chassis grounds should lead to earth grounds. Chassis Mounting The power supply offers one ore more surfaces for mounting a power supply directly to a system chassis or other metal .
The shortest unimpeded distance between two conductors or circuit components.
Timing pulses (see Figure 5) used in electronic systems to synchronize circuit operation. In a power supply, clock pulses synchronize operation of the pulse width modulator (PWM).
A conductive path used as a return for two or more circuits. The term
Common is often used interchangeably with ground, which is not technically correct unless it is connected to earth.
Common Mode Noise
The noise at an electrically ﬁxed point (usually chassis ground) common to both DC output and return lines.
Common Mode Filter
An input line filter that includes a differential wound transformer often used within power supplies. They show a high impedance to common mode signals and a low impedance to differential mode signals
The process of cooling or removing heat via a baseplate or heatsink.
A power supply that regulates its output current to within a speciﬁed current range regardless of changes of output load. These type of supplies are commonly used in battery charging application and LED Driver Circuits.
Constant Current Limiting
Current limiting circuit that holds output current at some maximum value whenever an overload of any magnitude is experienced.
Circuit that controls certain operating parameters of the power supply. Used to maintain output regulation.
A feedback loop used to control a power supply output.
Convection Cooling The dissipation of heat via still air.
A device that accepts an ac line input voltage and produces a dc output(s). Often referred to as a “switcher” (although linear converters are available), switching regulated power supplies are used in the majority of applications. AC/DC supplies are available in a variety of form factors, power levels and feature/performance envelopes. Converter (DC/DC) A device that accepts a regulated or unregulated dc input voltage and produces a dc output that is typically at another voltage level. At times DC-DC Converters are used to provide noise isolation power bus regulation, etc., at which converters will have the same input and output level.
The process of removing heat generated by normal operation of a power supply. Typical methods are convection, forced air and conduction.
The shortest distance between two conductors (typically one conductor primary and one conductor secondary).
For an ac waveform, the ratio of peak value to RMS value. If the waveform is pure sinusoidal, this value is 2. Crest factor was used to approximate the current stress in an AC mains circuit
On many multiple output power supplies, the secondary outputs may be affected by the loading conditions of the primary output(s). Multiple output power supplies often require minimum loads in order for the supply to achieve stated regulation speciﬁcations. Preload resistors may be employed at the system level to overcome these issues.
An overvoltage protection circuit which places a low resistance shunt across the power supply output terminals, if a predetermined voltage is exceeded.
The range over which output current can be adjusted and the means of making that adjustment.
Current Limit Knee
The point at which current is limited (foldback) on the plot of output voltage vs output current. (See Foldback Current)
Multiple power supplies or DC/DC supplies are often connected redundantly (to increase system reliability) or in parallel (to increase system power). Outputs are connected together and each supply “shares” the load current.
DC Output Voltage
The nominal output voltage setting of a power supply.
A supply / converter that accepts a DC input voltage and produces a DC output voltage.
In power supplies and DC/DC converters, derating is the speciﬁed reduction of the output current when operating under deﬁned conditions, typically eleveated operating temperatures.
The conversion principle employed (eg. linear, switched mode ﬂyback, half bridge etc).
Designed to Meet
A supply may not bear any safety agency approvals, but when installed and used properly, should meet the official safety requirements of an electronic system.
Dielectric Withstand Voltage
The maximum voltage an insulating material can withstand before suffering punch through or arcing across.
A current that flows in one direction.
For power supplies, the ratio of “on” time to “off” time of the semiconductor switch (in PWM systems) or clock signal.
Differential Mode Noise
That component of noise measured with respect to output or input to its returns; it does not include common mode noise. See Ripple and Noise.
The variation of output voltage of a supply over a speciﬁed period of time, following a warm up period, with all other operating parameters such as line, load and ambient temperature held constant.
Droop Share Method
The function of paralleling two power supplies to share a load without any active circuit to control how the load is shared. The current-sharing accuracy is directly related to the output-voltage set-point accuracy of the paralleled supplies. Considering that output voltage will vary based upon varying line, load, temperature and other conditions, it is strongly advised that droop sharing only be utilized for redundant operation, not for increased power.
A load condition that changes rapidly. During this load change, the output voltage may fall out of regulation (overshoot and / or undershoot) temporarily.
A measurement of Output power divided by Input Power. The values will vary depending on the load and AC input voltage. Typical Values shown are usually measurements of a supply at nominal input and output conditions.
Electronic interferences that impair the performance of electronic device is referred to as Electromagnetic Interference.
Conducted EMI is unwanted high frequency energy caused by the switching transistors, rectiﬁers, and transformers in power supplies and DC/DC. The noise that is generated on the input and output lines of a power supply is known as Conducted EMI. Most Conducted EMI measurements are done between 150.kHz and 30.MHz.
Switch mode power supplies and DC/DC converters may be ﬁltered by using an EMI ﬁlter on their input or primary side to meet applicable EMC standards. While supplies may be designed to meet an EMC standard, the ﬁnal equipment may have a dramatic effect upon a power supply’s EMC performance. It is the ﬁnal equipment that must conform to EMC regulations. So, specifying a supply which meets the EMI classes is not a guarantee that ﬁnal equipment will be compliant and does not remove the need for testing and possible additional ﬁltration required for ﬁnal equipment.
Radiated EMI is unwanted high frequency energy caused by the switching transistor, output rectiﬁers, and zener diodes in switching power supplies and DC/DC converters and emitted into the area surrounding the supply.
Electromagnetic radiation emitted into the atmosphere from the power supply. Conducted is that energy sent down the AC line cord; radiated is sent into the air. Final equipment must meet both standards while many supplies may be rated only for conducted emissions.
Hermetically sealed and contained in a thermally conductive epoxy resin or similar plastic
Power supply is covered in a metal or perforated metal cover assembly. Typically, an enclosed power supply is covered on all 6 surfaces for finger safe operation.
A current produced by the static charge of two objects when they are close enough to produce a discharge or arc.
The expected average lifetime of a power supply, which may be calculated upon the reliability data of a supply’s individual components or demonstrated through Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT) and Highly Accelerated Stress Screening (HASS).
Synchronizing the supply’s switching frequency to an external oscillator either in an external circuit or within a master supply.
An input or output circuit designed to attenuate ripple and noise generated by a supply.
A power supply or DC/DC supply output that is ungrounded and not referenced to another output. Typically, ﬂoating outputs are fully isolated and may be referenced as either positive or negative by the user.
Sometimes called a “Buck Boost” supply, this topology uses a single transistor switch and eliminates the need for an output inductor. Energy is stored in the transformer primary during the ﬁrst half of the switching period when the transistor switches “ON”. During the second half of “Flyback period when the transistor is OFF”, this energy is transferred to the transformer secondary and load. This technique is cost effective because a minimum number of components is required.
Foldback Current Limiting
An output protection circuit where the output current decreases with increasing overload, reaching a minimum at short circuit. This minimizes the internal power dissipation under overload conditions.
Forced Air Cooling
The use of a fan (or other air moving equipment) within a system to reduce the ambient temperature and cool the electronic equipment.
Also called a “Buck Derived” supply, this topology, like the ﬂyback supply, typically used a single transistor switch. Unlike the ﬂyback supply, energy is trans ferred to the transformer secondary while the transistor is “ON”, and stored in an output inductor.
Free Air Convection
An operating environment in which the natural movement of air (unassist ed by fans or blowers) is sufficient to maintain a power supply’s temperature within its operating limits.
Full Bridge Converter
A topology that typically operates as a forward supply but uses a bridge circuit, consisting of four switching transistors, to drive the transformer primary, used to handle high power levels.
The maximum continuous output current a power supply is rated for under nominal operating conditions.
Full Wave Rectiﬁer
A circuit (bridge or centre tapped) that rectiﬁes both halves of an AC waveform.
A circuit protection device, consisting primarily of a low melting point wire. If current passing through the wire exceeds a set level (as in the case of a fault condition), the wire melts and the circuit opens.
Two circuits which have no ohmic connection are considered to be “galvanically isolated” from each other. Galvanic isolation (separation) is achieved by using a transformer, opto coupler, etc.
An electrical connection that is made to earth (or to some conductor that is connected to earth). A power supply or DC/DC supply “common” is not actually ground unless it is connected to earth.
When two or more system components share a common ground line, a feedback (ground) loop is induced. This can cause unwanted voltage levels within the system.
Half Bridge Converter
A power switching circuit similar to the full bridge supply except that only two transistors are used, with the other two replaced by capacitors (see bridge rectiﬁer).
Half Wave Rectiﬁer
Single diode rectiﬁer circuit that rectiﬁes one half the AC input wave.
The distortion characterized by the presence of multiple harmonics of the fundamental frequencies in sinusoidal AC current waveforms and caused by the switching action of the power supply typically stated as a percentage of the sinusoidal wave form, eg: 0.95 Power Factor.
A metal plate, extrusion, or case that is provided to increase surface area to dissipate heat away from sensitive components and circuits.
Hipot (Dielectric Withstand)
The test voltage between the input and output, and output to ground.
When there is a loss of input power to a supply, this is the time during which the output voltage remains within regulation. To protect against momentary power outages in switching power supplies, energy is typically stored in bulk capacitors referred to as hold-up capacitors.
The function of replacing a power supply without shutting down the system. A supply is designed to be inserted or extracted and ﬁt within a mechanically designed slot with blind-mate connectors. These types of supplies typically have a soft-start function and utilize a short pin to enable the supply which is last to mate avoid arcing and ensure the supply is ﬁrmly seated prior to powering up.
Within a speciﬁed temperature range, the maximum moisture content permissible in the surrounding air of a supply. Two values are typically provided, operating humidity and storage humidity.
Indicates that the supply has been tested and is “immune” from electromagnetic or electro static discharge (ESD).
The apparent impedance presented by the supply to its output terminals.
An electrical property that opposes the flow of current in a circuit when a voltage is applied (or a change in an established current). Measured in henries Input Line Filter A low-pass or band-reject filter on the power supply input (internal or external) that attenuates noise from the system power bus.
The current drawn by a supply, which can be measured under a range of input voltage range and output load conditions. Typically listed as the maximum continuous input current under lowest input voltage and maximum output load so that proper fusing may be determined.
Input Current vs. Line Input
A performance curve illustrating how the input current varies with line input voltage. See Efficiency versus Input.
Input Ripple Rejection
A modulating signal injected into a supply operating at nominal line and full load. The signal is attenuated by the supply’s feedback loop (loop gain) and propagates to the output. The ratio (in absolute terms) of the input to the output signal is expressed in dB and listed as the input ripple rejection. This is speciﬁed for a DC to 120 Hz input so that the effects of a full wave rectiﬁer circuit can be evaluated. For example, if the Ripple Rejection of a supply is 60 dB (1000:1) and a 1volt, 120 Hz signal is superimposed on the supply’s input then the output will have a 1mV, 120Hz signal superimposed on it. This speciﬁcation is sometimes referred to as “Audio Susceptibility.”
Input to Output Capacitance
The isolation capacitance from the input pins to the output pins. This measurement is done with a 1 kHz, 1 VRMS capacitance bridge.
A spike or rapid voltage change of the input line to a supply. Input transient protection circuits are used to shield sensitive components (such as semi conductors) from possible damage.
Nominal Input value(s) of either AC or DC Input voltage for which the supply is connected.
Input Voltage Range
The highest and lowest input voltages from which a supply may operate. Inrush Current When supplies are ﬁrst turned on, a high surge input current is experienced caused by the charging of the bulk input capacitors. Also called Input Surge Current most commonly referenced in AC/DC Power Supplies.
Inrush Current Limiting
A circuit which limits the inrush current during initial turn on of a supply.
See Basic Insulation and Reinforced Insulation.
The resistance offered by an insulating material to current ﬂow.
Internal Power Dissipation
The power dissipated (as heat) within a supply during normal operation. Primarily a function of the efficiency a supply.
A device that generates AC power from a DC power source.
The parameter measured by applying a maximum rated isolation voltage between two points (typically input-to-output, input-to-ground or output-to-ground).
Isolation Test Voltage
The voltage test to determine the breakdown voltage of a transformer or supply. It is performed by applying a high voltage between two isolated test points. The isolation of a supply is typically tested to not cause stress to the insulation material.
Isolation Voltage (Rated)
Rated Isolation voltage is deﬁned as the maximum voltage across the isolation barrier a device can withstand for a ﬁxed time period. The actual breakdown voltage is typically in excess of 1000V higher than the rated isolation voltage. The reason for rating a conservative isolation voltage is to ensure that the isolation testing of supply does not degrade the isolation barrier in any way .
The current ﬂowing from input to output or input to ground/chassis or output to ground/chassis of an isolated power supply or DC/DC supply at a speciﬁed voltage level.
Line and Load Regulation
The combined effect of varying the DC load and AC input voltage
The change in DC output voltage of a supply over the entire input range while the output load is held constant.
Linear Power Supply
A power supply that uses linear regulation. Linears provide excellent regulation, low output noise and fast transient response. However, they are typically much heavier, larger and less efficient then “switching power supplies.
A common voltage-stabilization technique in which the control device (usually a transist or) is placed in series or parallel with the power source to regulate the voltage across the load. The term ‘linear’ is used because the voltage drop across the control device is varied continuously to dissipate unused power.
The components or circuitry drawing current from the output of a supply. The characteristic (resistance, reactance, etc.) of the load determines the amount of power drawn from the supply typically referred to as output current.
The change in DC output voltage when the output current / load is varied from its minimum to maximum range. Input voltage is held constant at nominal input during this test.
See Current Share.
A supply may offer remote on/off functions to inhibit or enable a supply’s output. This is function is typically achieved by pulling the associate logic pin hi or low (depending upon the remote on/off circuit in use). Speciﬁcally, most power supplies have a natural state of on when input is applied and may be inhibited by the remote on/off circuit.
Long Term Stability
The change, over time, in the output voltage of a power supply with all other factors (line, load, temp, etc.) remaining constant, expressed as a percentage. This output change is primarily due to component aging.
Master / Slave Operation
The connection of two or more power supplies (see Figure 19) in which one (master) controls the operation of the others (slaves). Master/slave configurations provide higher output power, wider input voltage ranges, synchronized operation, etc.
Limit of speciﬁcations that, if exceeded, could cause the shutdown or damage to a supply.
The minimum amount of output current required for a supply to operate within its speciﬁed regulation.
Term used to describe the physical construction of power systems that consists of separate subassemblies. Modular construction tends to lower the design turnaround for custom products, but increases cost and lowers MTBF
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. The device of choice for the main switch in switched mode power supplies having much better switching characteristics than Bipolar Transistors.
Mean time between failures is the predicted length of time before failure of a supply, exclusive of infant mortality failures.
The predicted average length of time to repair a faulty unit with the speciﬁed spares kit.
The use of multiple supplies to achieve higher reliability levels through system redundancy. The system consists of a number (N) of power supplies to satisfy the load plus one (+1) to provide redundancy and allow continued operation through the fault of one of the supplies. These supplies are typically isolated via an isolation device such as an OR’ing diode to ensure that a short within one supply will not cause the entire system to fail.
The output noise is speciﬁed at nominal line and full load. This speciﬁcation is very difficult to measure correctly due to the measurement bandwidth (0-20 MHz). Short leads and proper grounding techniques must be used. The output noise is speciﬁed in mV peak-to -peak. The majority of the noise reading is due to the switching action of the supply and is at very high frequencies, whereas the peak-to-peak amplitude at the fundamental switching frequency is usually much less.
Power supplies which are constructed only of a PCB. Operating Temperature The operating temperature range of a supply measured as either Ambient (surrounding Air) or base plate.
Also called decoupling diodes. These diodes ensure current can ﬂow in only one direction – out of a power supply. Without the diodes, one problem supply could cause all supplies to go into over current
protection in a current sharing scenario and generate a catastrophic failure within a system.
Over Temperature Protection. A protection system for supplies where the supply shuts down if temperature exceeds speciﬁed ratings. OTP is intended to save the supply in the event of a failure of the cooling system. OTP usually measures the hottest spot in the supply. Most supplies will automatically recover when temperatures return to normal.
The variation of output voltage to change in load current.
See load regulation.
The adjustment of the nominal output voltage via an external ﬁxed resistor or an internal trimpot on the supply.
Output Voltage Accuracy
The allowable tolerance of the output voltage of a supply when it is set at the factory.
Over Current Protection
See short circuit protection.
Over Voltage Protection
A circuit that will typically shutdown the power supply when the output voltage exceeds a speciﬁed range.
A protective feature that limits output power or current demands to prevent damage to the supply.
This is the momentary rise in output voltage a supply experiences during a decreased load condition.
Over Voltage Protection.
The connection of the outputs of two or more power supplies or DC/DC supplies of the same output voltage to obtain a higher output current. Only supplies speciﬁcally designed to share the load should be utilized to gain higher power (see active current sharing).
PARD Periodic and Random Deviation. A term used for the sum of all ripple and noise components measured over a speciﬁed band width and stated in either peak-to-peak or RMS values.
Passive Power Factor Correction
Traditional switched mode power supplies draw current from the AC line in short pulses, and, as a result, the input current of such basic switched mode power supplies has high harmonic content. This creates extra load on utility lines and increased heat of utility transformers and may cause stability problems to the entire AC Line (Especially in Europe). Passive Power Factor Correction is a network of capacitors and inductors to minimize the pulse so that the current waveform is more proportional to the AC waveform (a sine wave).
PCB Mounting Peak Load/Current
A supply that is designed for direct mounting on to a printed circuit board. The ability of a supply to provide higher output currents for short periods of time. A power supply with high peak loads is desirable in many applications, such as motors that draw high currents at start-up and then draw substantially reduced loads during normal operation.
A linear regulator used on the output of a supply to improve line and load regulation and reduce output ripple voltage.
The ratio of a power supply or DC/DC converter output power to its volume -typically displayed as Watts per square inch or Amps per square inch.
The ability of a power supply to operate at outside normal parameters, (such as eleveated temperature, reduced cooling or low input voltage) reduced or derated output currents.
Switching power supplies draw input current in pulses around the peaks of the AC line voltage frequency. Power factor is a measure of the input current draw and how closely it matches the sinusoidal phase of the AC input frequency .
Power Factor Correction (PFC)
PFC circuits improve how a supply draws input current to more closely match the sinusoidal line voltage. This reduces harmonics disturbance on the AC line. Reduced harmonic disturbance is a common requirement throughout Europe, and Power Factor Correction is the method to achieve reduced disturbances.
A logic (hi/low) compatible signal warning that input power has been lost and that DC outputs will soon fall out of regulation.
Power Good Signal
A logic (hi/low) compatible signal that indicates that DC Outputs are present and within speciﬁed regulation.
A system that converts AC current into the DC current or currents required by electronic circuits.
The regulation at the primary side of a power supply, generally by a type of switching regulator; followed by output regulation, usually by a linear type regulator.
The adjustment control of supply’s output voltage and/or current via an external parameter such as a control voltage or resistor value.
The internal fuse method for a supply, such as single or dual fused, typically rated for a maximum voltage, current and fuse type trip time (fast or slow acting). This fuse is usually rated to allow the use of an external fuse which can be mounted on an accessible panel, because replacing the fuse inside supply may prove difficult.
Pulse Width Modulation
A circuit used in switching power supplies or DC/DC supplies where the switching frequency is held constant and the width of the power pulses is varied, controlling both line and load changes with minimal dissipation.
A supply topology that typically is conﬁgured as a forward supply but uses two transistor switches and a centre-tapped transformer. The transistor switches turn on and off alternately.
The transfer of heat between two materials at different temperature levels. Radiant heat does not play a significant role in the cooling of distributed power systems
This is the maximum rated output current/load capability of a supply from minimum through maximum values under normal operating temperatures and cooling conditions. Operation below minimum load should not harm a supply in any way, but load regulation may suffer. Operation above the maximum rated load is not recommended and may degrade speciﬁcations, trip an overload protection circuit, and/ or reduce a supply’s life.
The ability to connect power supplies or DC/DC converters in parallel so that if one fails the other(s) will provide continuous power to the load. This mode is used in systems where a single failure cannot be tolerated. See also N+1 Redundancy.
The ability to vary output voltage and/or current over a speciﬁed range by an external signal, typically a control voltage. Often referred to as margining.
Remote Control (Enable/Inhibit)
A logic (hi or low) signal to turn on/turn off a supply.
A circuit within the supply to compensate for the reduction of output voltage through connections and wires (voltage drop) which can vary under temperature, connection strength, and wire stresses. Typically, a twisted pair of wires is attached to the load to “sense” the voltage at the load, enabling the supply to automatically compensate for varying voltage drop.
A class of power topologies which reduces switching losses by forcing either zero voltage across, or zero current through the switching device when it is turned on or off .
The name for the return current of output voltage(s) and/or logic signals.
Reverse Voltage Protection
A built in circuit (or element) that protects the supply from a reverse polarity, applied across the input or output terminals of a supply.
This is the AC component superimposed over the DC output voltage and is the traditional “hum” at 60 or 120 hertz. In swit ching power supplies, it is a complex waveform and can increase at maximum loading and minimum input voltage.
The electrical separation between the primary and secondary circuits and the safety standards to which the supply conforms in this respect.
Standards laid down by various national and international regulatory agencies.
A twisted pair of wires connected to the load in order to route output voltage back to the remote sense control circuit of the power supply. See Remote Sensing.
The ability of two or more supply outputs to be connected and provide a higher output voltages (two 48V power supplies in series to generate 96V). The load should not draw more current than the maximum rated output current of any single supply .
The allowed variance of the output voltage as set at the factory during the manufacture of a supply.
Short Circuit Protection
A short circuit is an unlimited load potential far exceeding a supply’s output current capability. Under a short circuit condition, most supplies are designed to shut-down and typically recover to normal operation when the short is removed.
Short Term Stability
With the supply fully warmed up at room temperature with constant line, load and temperature, the output will not vary by more than this amount.
Shutdown Idle Current
Current drawn by the supply from the supply when its outputs are disabled, Often referred to as no load input current or standby current.
Single Wire Current Share
A circuit in which multiple power supplies share current when paralleled. The supplies communicate through a single wire connection daisy chained to all the supplies. This circuit allows a speciﬁed amount of like supplies to be connected in parallel within a deﬁned accuracy range.
Six Sided Shielding
Metal shielding fully encompassing a supply to minimize any noise radiation from the supply components. Shielding can be solid or perforated.
A feature which limits the inrush current of a supply and causes the output voltage to rise gradually to its speciﬁed value.
The input current drawn by a supply when it has been inhibited off or is under no load conditions.
An operating environment in which the air surrounding the power supply or DC/DC converter is restricted in small enclosures (often sealed) where it cannot move freely.
The safe storage temperature for the device. Long term exposure within these temperature ranges should not degrade the supply’s performance.
See Reinforced Insulation.
A technique whereby components are soldered onto the surface of a PCB instead of pins or leads which must protrude through a PCB.
Surface Mount Devices
SMD Components including some power supplies designed to be assembled using surface mount technology.
The rate at which the input voltage is switched or “chopped” in a power supply. Sometimes referred to as frequency of operation.
Switching Power Supply
A power supply that uses switching regulation. Switchers are typically smaller, more efficient and lighter than linear supply.
A non isolated DC/DC converter consisting of inductors and capacitors to store energy and switching elements (typically transistors or SCR’s), which open and close as necessary to regulate voltage across the load. The switching duty cycle is generally controlled by a feedback loop to stabilize the output voltage, generally by means of a Pulse Width Modulation.
The peak to peak amplitude which occurs at the switching frequency on the output of switched mode supplies.
A circuit arrangement where the output rectiﬁer diodes of a supply are
replaced with active switches such as MOSFET’s. The switches are turned on and off under control and act as rectiﬁers. This results in considerably lower losses in the output stage of a supply and increases efficiency.
The average percent change in output voltage per degrees centigrade change in ambient temperature over a speciﬁed temperature range, with load and input voltage held constant.
The temperature rise of the case for each watt dissipated in the supply. The power dissipated is the difference between the input and output power.
A circuit within a supply that shuts down the supply if the internal temperature exceeds a predetermined limit (see over temperature protection – OTP).
A circuit condition in which an increase in the ambient temperature surrounding a power supply causes an increase in the internal power dissipated. This increases the case temperature, which in turn increases the ambient temperature of the surrounding air. The spiraling effect of these temperature increases will eventually lead to failure of the power system. This condition occurs when inadequate measures (air flow, system venting, power derating, etc.) are taken to get heat away from critical components.
The temperature speciﬁed at which the supply will shut down operation until the temperature decreases – typically measured at the hottest spot within a supply .
The combined voltage deviation a supply could experience due to any change within the speciﬁed tolerances of input voltage, output current and temperature change.
A characteristic of multiple output power supplies where one or more outputs ollow another and where there are changes in line, load and temperature, so that each maintains the same proportional output voltage, within speciﬁed tracking tolerance, with respect to a common return.
A spike or step change in a power supply parameter. Commonly used in describing input line and output load characteristics.
Transient Recovery Time
The time required for the output voltage of a supply to recover within a speciﬁed regulation following a transient load.
A percentage of the maximum output voltage deviation during a transient load.
Measurement of both transient deviation and transient recovery time after a transient load step.
Turn On Time
The time it takes for the output voltage to reach the speciﬁed accuracy when the outputs are fully loaded into resistive loads.
A supply constructed within a bracket with a “U” shaped proﬁle. Typically, all three planes of a U-Frame/U-Channel supply offer threaded holes for affixing the supply to a chassis/plate.
The momentary dip of output voltage a supply experiences during an increased load condition.
This indicates that a supply is able to operate with AC Power available in most countries without any changes in settings to the supply itself. This input range is typically 90–264 VAC.
Uninterruptible Power Supply. A system designed to supply power during the loss of AC line power. This is accomplished by means of a back up battery and a DC/AC inverter or DC/DC power supply.
Under Voltage Protection
A protection circuit that shuts a power supply off if the output voltage falls below a preset level. Sometimes used as an input protection circuit in wide input range power supplies (ac and dc) to prevent overheating if the input voltage sags below a predetermined level. Sometimes called under voltage shutdown or under voltage lockout.
The maximum voltage level that can be applied between circuits or components without causing a breakdown. See Breakdown Voltage and Isolation.
The range over which the output voltage can be adjusted.
Voltage balance is often speciﬁed on dual supplies as being the difference in absolute terms between the positive and negative output and expressed as a percentage. For example, if the positive output is at 12.00 Volts and the negative output is at 12.12 volts then the balance would be 1.0%.
The range(s) of input AC or DC voltage(s) over which the supply(s) operates within speciﬁcation.
Referring to an AC/DC power supply that inserts and mounts directly to an AC Socket on the wall. The supply is typically enclosed in a UL94V-0 Rated (ﬁre proof) plastic case with blades to plug directly into the AC socket and with a dangling output cable to mate with the system it is powering.
This usually refers to an N+1 Redundant powered system. This deﬁnes the ability to replace one of multiple supplies tied in parallel. The supply being replaced must be powered with it’s AC Input Removed off while the others may remain on. This type of supply is typically mechanically designed to ﬁt into a slot with a blind mate connector, most commonly with an AC Inlet on the front panel.
Warm Up Time
The time required, after initial turn on, for a power supply or DC/DC supply to operate within its speciﬁcations. Most supplies do not require a warm-up time when operating above 0°C. Some supplies will operate at less than 0°C t emperature or below freezing, with a stipulation of a warm-up period.
Working Voltage (Rated)
Rated working voltage or electrical strength, is the maximum continuous voltage that can be sustained continuously across the isolation barrier of a supply without causing stress to the isolation barrier. The rated working voltage is typically much lower than the rated isolation voltage.